The time of autumn arrives, it is the time of the rains, the fall of the leaves and the appearance of the mushrooms. There are many types of mushrooms that we have in our rich Spanish soil. But be careful, it’s not all about going out and picking mushrooms in a basket, getting home, cooking and eating.
You have to know the species very well and take special care with the mushrooms that put our physical integrity at serious risk. You can get poisoned and have indigestion, a strong scare, and if things get complicated and you find the wrong mushroom you can die. Picking mushrooms is fine , but you have to train and know how to differentiate between very similar species. Choosing the poisonous one can kill you. Here is a list of poisonous and dangerous mushrooms in Spain:
1- Amanita Phalloides
This mushroom is one of the most dangerous and harmful to the body that we can find on the penisula. It is mortal. It is known in Spain by different names: green cape cap, cape cap or green hemlock, or death mushroom. It is the most criminal mushroom for humans.
The toxins act on the liver and kidneys , causing liver failure. Its consumption causes what is known as the phalloidian syndrome, typical of the amanitas, which consists of a slow and staggered action that makes it difficult to identify the origin of the intoxication. It is responsible for 90 percent of deaths from ingestion of toxic mushrooms.
It grows throughout the season and throughout the national territory. It is white at birth and when it grows its hat turns olive green and yellowish tones.
2- Amanita Verna
Yes. Another amanita. Unfortunately not all can be so rich, delicious and harmless amanita caesarea (the well-known tanas) and amanita ponderosa (the rich and tasty gurumelo). Disgraceful second place to toxicity goes to the beautiful yet toxic verna. Spanish mushroom lovers will know that it is also known as white oronja, and, eye, white hemlock. You can get the idea of what a bad decision it is to bring one of these closer to the plate. Its ingestion is aggressive and has a retarding and progressive action like its sister, the phalloid amanita. It is especially dangerous, since due to its color, for inexperienced people who go into the field to pick mushrooms, it is easily confused with the Paris mushroom or the wild mushroom, two harmless and tasty mushrooms. It is found in the Spanish meadows and pine forests,
It is characterized by its white color and round hat and when it grows it opens . We will include here in this section another first cousin with similar effects to the verna, the amanita virosa, (the fetid or smelly cape cap) as it is toxic and can also be confused with mushrooms. Its strong smell tends to drive the collectors away from it.
3 – Amanita Muscaria
Prize, another amanita. In this case we have the most common mushroom in cartoons. If the red one with white polka dots. He appeared in the adventures of David the gnomeand always accompanies magical beings in illustrations. Nothing further than usual is a clear mistake to get close to one of these. Its effect is so aggressive that its name, muscaria, comes from Latin and refers to flies. When approaching them, flies and other bugs are instantly paralyzed by their toxicity. This is why it is also called fly swatter.
It can be seen in our fields and forests from late summer to early fall. It is not fatal but its neurotoxic effects are very aggressive . Liver and digestive system, in addition to the nervous system, will be strongly affected by this fungus. Very toxic.
4- Cortinarius orellanus
They are less abundant, but no less toxic. Both this and the Cortinarius speciosissimus or Cortinarius Cinnamomeus. They contain orellanine, a nephrotoxic substance for humans. It is especially remarkable because the first symptoms usually do not appear until 2-3 days after taking it and in some cases it can take up to 3 weeks. Orellanine poisoning is similar to the common flu; ie: nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, headache. After this symptoms of kidney failure: thirst, frequent urination, kidney pain. Eventually urine production decreases or stops and other symptoms of kidney failure occur.
5- Boletus satanas
Its color invites you to move on immediately. It is a boletus that despite not being deadly per se, is very toxic raw, and as with the morel, its consumption like this can cause many problems, even lead to death. If eaten cooked it is also indigestible. Its raw consumption causes gastrointestinal disorders, vomiting and diarrhea, which manifest shortly after ingestion.
It is a large mushroom, its name is due in part to the fact that in advanced stages of life it takes on a reddish color in its entirety and stains blue to the touch , mainly in the lower part. Its meat is compact and white or yellowish. When cut it acquires a grayish tone and later bluish. Its smell is unpleasant and its taste is sweet.
6- Gyromitra esculenta
We are facing a twin sister, not in gender, but in effect and in how this mushroom should be cooked. For many decades, gyromitra esculenta has been treated as a good food. But the reality is more stubborn. It is a highly toxic species if ingested naturally, that is, raw. Other names given to this mushroom are bonnet fungus or false morel .
This mushroom can be seen in rocky places and under pine trees in the spring. It is irregularly shaped and bumpy, reminiscent of a brain. It is very similar to the aforementioned morel.
You know, mushrooms can be very dangerous and toxicif they don’t know each other. Take a guide to help you interpret them, and study them beforehand are two good tips. And the best advice of all: even if you are an expert, when in doubt, leave it in the field; better not risk it.
The Board regulates the collection of mushrooms for self-consumption and allows the collection of three kilos per person per day
The Territorial Delegation of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and the Environment of the Andalusian Government in Huelva has issued a resolution for the regulation of mushroom picking in forest land in the province of Huelva. Thus, the administration gives the green light to the collection for self-consumption without its authorization, provided that the conditions established by the technicians and included in the resolution itself are met: specifically, it allows the collection of three kilos per person per day.
The Delegation has published a list of eleven requirements in its power to authorize the use of wild species in the forest space, the Board has reported in a note. “On the one hand, we normalize a practice that is consolidated as a tradition and that is a leisure alternative.
And on the other, we provide security and guarantees to a sector that can become an important source of wealth with potential legal and regulated jobs”, declared the delegate of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Sustainable Development, Alvaro Burgos. The Board , however, is working on the decree that develops all regulations aimed at regulating the professional harvesting and use of wild mushrooms in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, framed in the Plan for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Mushrooms and Truffles.