Photo by Diego Delso. We have all heard of the mysterious Nazca Lines at least once in our lives , lines visible from above in the Nazca Plateau in southern Peru , whose origins still remain a big question mark. The lines represent some geometric figures and many animals : monkeys, whales, spiders, lizards. All of huge dimensions : for example the spider is 45 meters long. Over 13,000 lines are visible on the plateau forming around 800 figures .
But who were the Nazca
And why should they have made these drawings in the ground

Nazca civilization: who they were and when they lived
According to the historical and historiographical elements in their possession, the Nazca civilization developed in the 1st century AD . on the banks of the Aja River, in the Inca region of Peru. The existence of the Nazca was brief: it seems that they decayed in the sixth century AD . The Nazca were great workers of polychrome pottery , on which they drew mutilated men : according to these indications they are led to think that they made human sacrifices.
The Nazca civilization is best known for the Nazca lines , first discovered by the pilot Eduardo Herran Gomez de la Torre and first analyzed by thePeruvian archaeologist Toribio Mejia Xesspe in 1926 .

How they were traced and what they were used for
According to studies, these huge hieroglyphs were traced between 300 BC and 500 AD , during the flowering of the Nazca, the population of the area. There are several hypotheses on the method of tracing and realization: first of all, it has been highlighted that the figures are drawn by a single line that never crosses with itself. From the point of view of the technique, the lines were drawn by sweeping away the reddish color and the pebbles that make up the surface of the desert, to let the previously covered white sand emerge . The particularThe area’s arid, dry and windless climate did the rest, allowing these mysterious lines to be perfectly preserved.
Scholars believe that the Nazca first drew the figures and animals on a small scale , and then made them large.
There are different opinions on their usefulness: there are those who think that they served as a channel for irrigation , that they delimited a center of worship , that they had an astronomical significance .

The Mystery of the Nazca Lines: Human or Alien Work
Here are some theories!

Many theories have come and gone over the years: who made the Nazca lines
Humans or aliens
Some think that these hieroglyphs are the work of aliens, looking for a place to land on earth. Someone else instead sees the Nazca lines as a track for racing competitions. Then…

  1. Theory 1: Landing place for aliens
    According to Erich von Daniken, the lines were landing places for aliens. The lines would be drawn by the landing spaceships. However, some people reject this hypothesis because of the ground, which is too soft to support heavy vehicles. But if Erich von Daniken was right and if the aliens at the time had landed on earth to see what was happening here and to be able to take samples of the soil, rich in minerals
  2. Theory 2: Track for running races
    According to G. Von Bruenig, the lines were made by humans and were used for running races. This is one of the less accredited hypotheses, but nevertheless of great interest: it raises the importance of sporting activity already in ancient times.
  3. Theory 3: Sacred Paths and Centers of Worship
    Johan Reinhard thinks the lines were represented by humans and represented sacred paths that led to a place where mountains and other natural elements could be worshiped. Hans Horkheimer in 1947 theorized that these lines were traced that indicated how and where to walk during religious ceremonies .
  4. Theory 4: Gods from the Stars
    According to scholars Morrison and Rostworowski, these lines were drawn by the ancients who thought that the legendary master-hero Viracocha, also known as Quetzalcoatl , would return to earth. The hieroglyphs would serve as a reference point for him.
  5. Theory 5: Astronomical calendar
    The German archaeologist Maria Reiche passionately studied hieroglyphs, and assumed that the lines had a correlation with astronomy. For example, I identify the Ursa Major in the figure of the monkey and the constellation of Orion in that of the dolphin and the spider .
  6. Theory 6: Link with water
    One of the most credible versions is the one that sees the Nazca lines closely connected with water. Some scholars saw in these hieroglyphs some real irrigation channels . David Johnson, on the other hand, argues that the lines were a map of underground water resources , triggering a ritual whereby a person would only be able to get water if he read the lines correctly.

The Colibri, The Astronaut and the other famous geoglyphs:
Some geometric figures and animal figures have entered the collective imagination and have become real symbols. Here are the 10 most famous hieroglyphs, with their geographical coordinates:

  • Astronauta, 14°44′42.79″S 75°04′47.08″W
    Photo of Diego Delso.
  • Colibri, 14°41′31.92″S 75°08′57.84″W
  • Monkey, 14 ° 42′26.07 ″ S 75 ° 08′19.5 ″ W
    Source: wikipedia.
  • Balena, 14 ° 48′59.22 ″ S 74 ° 59′41.28 ″ W
    Foto di Raymond Ostertag.
  • Dog, 14 ° 42.384’S, 75 ° 7.846 W
    Source: wikipedia.
  • Condor, 14 ° 41′51.46 ″ S 75 ° 07′35.98 ″ W
    Photo by Raymond Ostertag.
  • Lucertola, 14 ° 41′36.96 “S 75 ° 06′54” W
  • Spider, 14 ° 41′39.84 ″ S 75 ° 07′21.72 ″ W
    Source: wikipedia.
  • Spirale, 14°41′17.65″S 75°07′24.23″W
  • Parrot, 14 ° 41′22.36 ″ S 75 ° 06′28.28 ″ W
    Photo by Fabian65.
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