1. Volcanic lightning, all over the world
  2. Bioluminescence, Pacific Ocean – Gulf of Mexico
  3. Lenticular clouds, all over the world
  4. Circumorizontal arc, high altitudes – North America – Northern Europe
  5. Northern Lights, Arctic Circles
  6. Frozen methane bubbles, Abraham lake – Canada
  7. Supercella, Canada – Mexico – Argentina – Bangladesh – part of eastern India – South Africa and Australia
  8. Arcobaleno Eucalyptus, Maui – Hawaii
  9. Red Tide, all over the world
  10. Migration of red crabs, Christmas Island – Australia
  11. Giant’s Causeway, Northern Ireland
  12. Fairy Circles, Namibia
  13. “Crop circles” subacquei, Giappone
  14. Moeraki Spheres, New Zealand
  15. Great Blue Chasm, Belize
  16. Moving stones, Racetrack Playa – California
  17. Spotted Lake, Canada
  18. Ice flowers, Arctic Ocean
  19. Lava blu, vulcano Ijen Crater – Indonesia
  20. Tornadoes of fire, all over the world

Nature is always unpredictable and has created breathtaking wonders, each of its creatures is a real miracle. But the world is also full of strange things, phenomena that have caused the curiosity of the human mind since ancient times. There are events entirely created by nature that appear to us unusual and different from what we are used to seeing. These phenomena occur in different parts of the world, some are so bizarre that it can be hard to believe they really exist! These spectacular, and sometimes disturbing, wonders reveal the immense power of nature: from bioluminescence to the Northern Lights, here are some of the most fascinating natural phenomena in the world.

1 – Volcanic lightning, all over the world
Photo by Oliver Spalt. This spectacular phenomenon combines the force of gas and ashes released by the volcano with that of lightning, which occurs during the eruption. Despite the truly spectacular effect, it is a rather normal phenomenon and was also observed during the last eruption of Vesuvius in March 1944. The lightning is nothing more than an intense flow of electricity that occurs between two areas in which there are positive and negative electric charges. For this to happen, two conditions are necessary: ​​a mechanism must take over that generates the separation of charges between two large masses of matter and a process that connects the two masses and subsequently creates the flow of electricity. Therecollision of dust and ash particles , which occurs during a volcanic eruption, corresponds to the first condition. The second, on the other hand, occurs during the separation process of the charges, if they possess different aerodynamic properties.

2 – Bioluminescence, Pacific Ocean – Gulf of Mexico
Photo by Bruce Anderson (University of Stellenbosch) .. The almost spectral light of this phenomenon is created by a chemical reaction called bioluminescence, which occurs when tiny organisms in the water are somehow disturbed. Bioluminescence is generally used by creatures that populate the deepest abysses of the oceans, where the sun’s rays do not arrive in any form, and therefore the densest and most perennial darkness. The occurrence of this phenomenon even in areas where it had never appeared before is fascinating but at the same time worrying. Scientists explain that it is a symptom of climate change: until 1994, for example, the presence of these micro organisms had never been witnessed, but global warming, strengthening the Australian eastern current, pushed large masses of hot water south. , towards the island state.

3 – Lenticular clouds, all over the world
Lenticular clouds owe their name to their appearance, they are in fact formations of the tropospherewhich, often, are the explanation for alleged UFO sightings. In fact, they have a typical shape reminiscent of a “spaceship”, with smooth and well-defined contours. They represent the part visible to the naked eye of the so-called orographic waves, which are created on the leeward side of a mountain when particularly intense currents create undulations in the atmosphere. They can occur all over the world, even in Europe albeit more rarely, giving rise to spectacular effects especially when they “rest” on Mount Olympus or just above Etna.

4 – Circumorizontal arc, high altitudes – North America – Northern Europe
Also called a rainbow of fire, this phenomenon looks almost like a colored flame that blazes up in the sky. It is a fairly rare phenomenon and occurs only in certain latitudes, where there are very harsh climates. The phenomenon is in fact caused by the sun’s rays hitting the cirrus clouds, a type of cloud that forms and stays at altitudes above 6,000 meters , with an inclination of 58 °. The hexagonal shaped ice crystals, of which the cirrus clouds are made, create a refractive effect by acting as a huge prism.

5 – Northern Lights, Arctic Circles
The auroras or polar lights are natural lights with a mesmerizing effect that occur in the skies of high latitude regions, such as Alaska, Denmark, Ireland, Greenland, Scandinavia, Russia and Canada. Admiring this phenomenon means observing some light trails in the skywhich take on different colors, based on the gases present in the air. This phenomenon is part of the optical ones, like lightning, rainbows and glories.

What causes this effect
Solar particles, mainly made up of electrons, collide at high speed with the Earth’s magnetic field and with gases found in the outer layers of the atmosphere. The energy produced by this clash causes the light to appear to our eyes with various wavelengths , creating precisely the auroral arcs.

6 – Frozen methane bubbles, Abraham Lake – Canada
We are used to hearing troubling news that global warming is causing glaciers to melt, rising seas and increasing storms and hurricanes. In a region of Canada, Alberta, there is a lake which, due to the climate, risks catching fire! The artificial lake Abraham, created by man in 1972 as a result of the construction of the Bighorn Dam, is in fact filled with frozen methane gas bubbles . As the hot season approaches, during the thaw, they risk bursting and igniting without warning. The scenic effect is very special, but what allows the creation of these potentially dangerous icy bubbles
The water of the lake, during the cold winter months, is gradually returned to the river to create hydroelectricity. The lake is located in an area with little rain and with incessant winds, consequently receives little snow that fails to cover its surface: the continuous lowering of the water level causes it to fragment, a bit like the plates terrestrial tectonics. The methane bubbles produced by the decomposition of organic material remain trapped under the icy layer .

7 – Supercell, Canada – Mexico – Argentina – Bangladesh – part of eastern India – South Africa and Australia
A supercell is basically a stronger and more tornado-like versionof a normal storm. Meteorologists define this phenomenon as a thunderstorm with the presence of a mesocyclone, or low pressure in rotation. They are considered quite dangerous due to the power they emit, although they occur less frequently than tornadoes.

8 – Eucalipto Arcobaleno, Maui – Hawaii
Photo of * amelia *. Have you ever seen the trunk of a tree colored green, purple, orange and yellow
Yet it exists! It is a particular species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus deglupta), also called Rainbow Eucalyptus, precisely because its bark is characteristically colorful. It is not the work of some extravagant artist, but only of nature: it is a phenomenon determined by the detachment of some pieces of barkwhich happens at different times. The innermost part of the stem is bright green in color, darkens over time and takes on shades of blue and purple, up to brown and orange. Precisely because of this characteristic, this species of Eucalyptus is cultivated for the production of wood which, when processed, is transformed into colored paper . If you want to try to grow this beautiful tree in your garden, you can try to buy some seeds, which are currently on the market.

9 – Red Tide, all over the world
Photo by Kurioziteti123. Someone will surely remember the episode told in the Bible, more specifically in the Exodus, of the Ten Plagues of Egypt. The first of these plagues was the transformation of the Nile water into “blood”, resulting in the death of the fish. Actually today we know that this is a phenomenon that occurs all over the world, red tides have been observed on the coasts of the United States and Canada, in Australia, in Brunei, in northwestern Europe, in the Philippines, Japan, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea but also elsewhere.

What happens when the sea turns deep red, almost looking like blood
The phenomenon, frankly a little disturbing,it is caused by some species of microscopic unicellular algae or by protozoa called dinoflagellates, which grow and reproduce in an explosive way, reaching a concentration that can approach the number of 50 million specimens per liter of water! Scientific studies have not yet been able to provide a single explanation for this phenomenon, however it is believed that uncontrolled proliferation is the consequence of various aspects: climatic anomalies, optimal temperatures, excessive presence of nutrients in the water , lots of sunlight and currents. favorable marines. Obviously, man also has his share of “guilt”: the organic and industrial waste dumped into the seain large quantities they provide an overabundance of certain nutrients. The phenomenon tends to be harmless but, at times, it can be very dangerous: some species of dinoflagellates release toxins into the water that paralyze and kill fish and other marine creatures.

10 – Migration of red crabs, Christmas Island – Australia
A truly unique phenomenon takes place on this small mountainous island located off the coast of Australia: once a year, the surface is almost completely covered by a river of red claws. During the period of their migrationBetween the months of October and December, an astonishing number of adult specimens of crabs of the species Gecarcoidea natalis pour into the streets of Christmas Island and cross the island, starting from the forest and heading towards the coast. Here their march ends, with mating and spawning. If the sight of this multitude may seem almost terrifying to outsiders, in reality the inhabitants of the island are quite used to this phenomenon and do their utmost to help the crabs in their march: the roads are closed, bridges and underpasses are built to the transit of the “red river”.

11 – Giant’s Causeway, Northern Ireland
This rocky outcrop is located on the coasts of Northern Ireland, precisely to the north-east, in County Antrim. The unique rock formations in the world are the result of the outflow of lava flows over sixty million years ago which, cooling down, created these hexagonal-shaped basalt columns. This “path”, given its uniqueness, in 1986 was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. As we all know, Ireland is a land of myths and legends, but one linked to this fascinating place could be missing
It is said that the giant Finn McCool built this pavement to travel to Scotland to fight the giant Angus but, shortly before leaving, he falls asleep. So Angus came looking for him, Finn’s wife to protect her husband cover him with a cloth and try to convince the rival that this, in reality, was their child. When Angus saw how big this presumed child was, I also imagine the size of the opponent, so I flee in retreat, terrified, destroying the pavement so as not to be chased. Even the Scottish island of Staffa, in fact, has the same basaltic formations .

12 – Fairy Circles, Namibia
Photo by Beavis729. They can be compared to the famous and equally mysterious crop circles, even if they are the reverse, that is circles of grass with sand in the center : the circles of the fairies are present only in Namibia and give life to a truly spectacular effect , especially if observed from above. Scientists have been wondering for some time about these natural conformations, formulating the most disparate hypotheses to try to explain the reasons for their appearance. They appear and disappear after a few years, the larger they are and the longer they remain “alive”, on average they resist for 24 years but some even 75. The particularity that makes them evident is the vegetation, which grows following its circumference . In short, where do these circles originate from
Obviously and the population has always considered them as something related to divine intervention , but many scientists have tried to provide an empirical answer to this question. An authoritative research published in Science argues that they are the result of the work of termites living right inside the circles: although the hypothesis is to be verified, termites are actually the only animals present in the soil when the circles begin to form. They also feed on the roots of the grass, helping to eliminate a large part of it when it grows during the rainy season.

13 – Underwater “Crop circles”, Japan
Also in this case the phenomenon is very similar to that of crop circles, only these are located in the deep sea of ​​Japan. A snorkel enthusiast, armed with a camera, once he has earned the coveted diving license, I begin to perfect the art of underwater photography to become a freelance photographer. One day he immersed himself in the semi-tropical region of Amami Oshima, about 25 meters below sea level, and discovered these circular geometric shapeswhich measured about 6.5 meters in diameter. The news of the discovery of these apparently mysterious “sand circles” went around the world, even the Japanese television station NHK broadcast live “The discovery of the century: The Mysterious Sand Circles”, also revealing the solution to the riddle.
The cameras have in fact immortalized the artist, a small and rare type of puffer fishwho works nonstop day and night and sculpts circular crests with just the fluttering fin. The puffer fish enriches its work of art with small shells, cracks and internal grooves not so much for aesthetic purposes but rather “romantic”: the male thus intends to attract the females to mate and lay the eggs which will take place in the center of the circle. Even the shells placed with so much care are not decorative but serve as nourishment for the hatching of the eggs.

14 – Moeraki Spheres, New Zealand
With their almost perfect spherical shape they look like cocoons of huge alien insects. In reality the Moeraki spheres are huge boulders (up to 3 meters in diameter) found along some coastal areas of New Zealand. These stones do not hide anything so mysterious: they are formed by sediments of the seabed that have aggregated together due to a process similar to that of the creation of pearls. The spheres are also millions of years old and, given their shape and size, it seems almost impossible that they are the product of a natural process! Instead it is just like that, once again man has nothing to do but it is always nature to leave us amazed.

15 – Great Blue Chasm, Belize
Generally it is not unusual to find more or less deep holes in the ground, and in fact we are not surprised. This huge hole, on the other hand, has something special about it. It is located off the coast of Belize, inside a tiny atoll 100 km away from Belize City, and has an almost perfectly circular shape. Here the color of the water changes radically, from a crystalline blue to dark blue, due to the depth of the seabed, which suddenly passes from a few meters to over 100 meters. The Great Blue Chasm has a diameter of over 300 meters, its birth seems to be caused by the collapse of a limestone cave systemwhich in the beginning was above sea level, which occurred when the waters rose after the end of the past ice age. The water temperature also changes considerably: that on the surface measures an average of 24 ° C, the deeper you go and the more the water temperature decreases , for this you need to use a wetsuit. The site ranks tenth in the list of the most interesting places in the world and is a very popular destination for all divers. Inside the chasm there are some stalactites, the splendid coral and various populations of fish that live there. The Great Blue Hole has also been observed by NASA with the Earth Observing-1 satellite.

16 – Movable stones, Racetrack Playa – California
“Like a rolling stone” is the title of a famous song by Bob Dylan and is perfect to describe this phenomenon that for decades has remained without explanation. It takes place in a desert, the so-called Valley of Death, made up of a bottom of dried mud that has broken into small and perfect octagons and pentagons. Although the ground is perfectly flat, some stones of various sizes and weights seem to move independently, sometimes moving a few meters, sometimes entire kilometers. In 2006, John Hopkins University scientist Ralph Lorenz was working in this area for NASA, collaborating on a project that involved the installation of weather stations. The environment and atmospheric conditions at the Death Valley are in fact very similar to those of the planet Mars. The scientist, in parallel with the “official” research, seems to have also discovered the origin of the phenomenon. The turning point in the search occurred when he noticed a point where two rocks had collided: they hadn’t bumped into each other, they hadn’t really touched, as if one had released some strange force field that had deflected the other. This evidence reminds him of a phenomenon he had read about, which occurs in the Arctic region and which seems to take place here in a similar way. In practice, being the playa a very dry place, when it rains in winter the water accumulates in some pools and freezes. The sun thaws and forms pieces of ice that are pushed by the wind until they hit the stones and begin to push them . Due to the water the ground is less resistant and the stones can be moved easily.

17 – Spotted Lake, Canada
Photo by AndrewEnns. The “spotted lake” attracts visitors from all over the world due to its particular formation, it is in fact “stained” due to the high concentration of various minerals, such as magnesium sulphate, calcium, sodium sulphates and smaller parts of silver and titanium. The large mineral patches, which appear white yellow, green or blue, are what remains of the water evaporation process. During the First World War, an intense mining activity took place here for the minerals from the lake, which were later used to make ammunition. It also seems that the Chinese workers in charge of collecting the minerals have recovered up to a ton a day of material! The Okanagan Valley natives consider this lake a sacred placeand particularly significant for their culture, so much so that its commercial exploitation has caused quite a few controversies. The waters of the lake have been known for thousands of years for their therapeutic properties , which the native Indians used to heal pains and ailments of various kinds.

18 – Ice flowers, Arctic Ocean
If you think that flowers can only bloom in the warmth of spring, you are wrong. There are ice flowers floating on the Arctic Ocean and forming at very low temperatures, around – 22 ° C! The show offered is truly amazing: obviously they are not real flowers, but ice imperfectionswhich is on the surface and which takes on pointed shapes, similar to real frozen flowers. Like the coral reef, they form a temporary ecosystem thanks to the presence of many microorganisms.

19 – Blue lava, Kawah Ijen volcano – Indonesia
The Kawah Ijen volcano, in Indonesia, during the day is a common volcano that erupts lava with a typical bright red color, while at night the lava takes on a phosphorescent blue color . The site, in addition to the lava, also produces flames of the same color that can reach 5 meters in height.

What causes this phenomenon is the large amount of sulfur present in the lava and in the air. On top of the volcano, moreover, there is the most acidic crater lake in the world, and the gases produced during the release of the material are harmful to humans … a welcoming place! Despite these pestiferous characteristics, the site is visited by many tourists, especially since National Geographic has talked about the phenomenon making it known all over the world.

20 – Tornado of fire, all over the world
One of the most feared natural nightmares comes to life, a tornado made up of very high flames! This very dangerous phenomenon, in English fire whirl or firenado, develops when during a fire, based on the temperature of the air and the currents,a “tongue” of fire that begins to rotate forming a vortex . Fortunately, the phenomenon generally lasts only a handful of minutes and is therefore very difficult to capture with one click. The dangerousness and lethality of this phenomenon is well evidenced by an episode that occurred in 1932 in Japan when, during the Great Kantō earthquake, various fires were triggered. A huge whirlwind of fire broke out that killed 38,000 people in fifteen minutes.

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