Kings and Queens are not just a thing of the past: even today many countries have their own monarchy, but over the years it has changed forms and has undergone some changes in power. For example, there are very few absolute monarchies today ; on the other hand, parliamentary ones predominate . Constitutional monarchies are also in decline .
Let’s see what monarchies exist in Europe today .

1 – Belgium

  • Form of government: Federal Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: Flippo
  • Year the monarchy began: 1831

The Belgian monarchy, of a parliamentary type, does not see an immediate passage to power in the event of the death of its predecessor: the new King is elected only after the constitutional oath . The Belgian monarchy has always conformed to the principles of the liberal revolution .

2 – United Kingdom

  • Form of government: Constitutive Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: Elizabeth II
  • Year the monarchy began: 927

The British one is one of the oldest monarchies in the world: although the starting date is questionable, it is traced back to the rule of King Atelstano which began in 927 . For over 4 centuries, however, complete sovereignty has no longer been in the hands of the monarch: in 1689 , parliamentary sovereignty was established with the Bill of Rights . 3 – Denmark

  • Form of government: Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: Margaret II
  • Year the monarchy began: 933

The Danish monarchy is also one of the most historic in the world. The first King to unify the then fragmented kingdom of Denmark was Aroldo I Tooth Blue , in office from 933. Until 1900 Denmark was a constitutional monarchy and, before that, until 1660 , an absolute monarchy .

4 – Liechtenstein

  • Form of government: Constitutional Monarchy
  • Name of the sovereign: Giovanni Adamo II (titular), Luigi (regent)
  • Year the monarchy began: 1608

More than a monarchy, in the case of Liechtenstein it is referred to as a ” principality “. The first prince was Charles I, who reigned from 1608 to 1627. The current Prince John Adam II in 2004 gave the decision-making power to his son Louis .

5 – Luxembourg

  • Form of government: Parliamentary monarchy (Grand Duchy)
  • Name of the ruler: Henry
  • Year the monarchy began: 963

The history of the Duchy of Luxembourg has its origins towards the end of the 1st century AD. In 1815 the Duchy of Luxembourg was elevated to the title of Grand Duchy. Currently Luxembourg is a parliamentary monarchy with legislative power entrusted to the unicameral parliament.

6 – Norway

  • Form of government: Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: Harald V
  • Year the monarchy began: 872

Despite initial inaccurate information, it is estimated that the kingdom of Norway began in 872 with Harald I. Today the King’s functions are mainly ceremonial . He also formally appoints the ministers.

7 – Netherlands

  • Form of government: Constitutional Monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: William Alexander
  • Year the monarchy began: 1747

Although the Kingdom of the Netherlands already existed, it was only in 1747 that the constitutional monarchy was officially declared, which later became a parliamentary. Also in this case the King has a mainly ceremonial role . Executive power is in the hands of the government.

8 – Munich

  • Form of government: Constitutional Monarchy (principality)
  • Name of the ruler: Albert II
  • Year the monarchy began: 1297

Also in the case of Monaco we speak of a Principality: the current Prince and Albert II. Since 1911 the Principality of Monaco has been a hereditary constitutional monarchy , with a single- chamber system of government .

9 – Spain

  • Form of government: Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: Philip VI
  • Year the monarchy began: 1479

The Spanish monarchy has a glorious history of sovereignty
behind it . For several centuries the royals of Spain were at the head of a vast colonial empire . Today the King has a role of representation and guarantor of unity and democracy .

10 – Sweden

  • Form of government: Parliamentary Monarchy
  • Name of the sovereign: Carlo XVI Gustavo
  • Year the monarchy began: 945

The history of the Swedish kings is also very old and alternated between different families . Parliamentarism , already present 3 centuries ago, was reintroduced in 1917 by Gustav V of Sweden.

11 – Vatican City

  • Form of government: Elective hierocratic absolute theocratic monarchy
  • Name of the ruler: Pope Francis
  • Year the monarchy began: 752

And here is the longest monarchy in the world: the Papal one, in force from 752 to 1870 with the name of Papal State and since 1929 as State of the Vatican City. The monarchy of the Vatican City is absolute and also defined as ” hierocratic “, that is, with the sovereignty exercised in a symbolic way by the divinity . It is an election monarchy .

12 – Andorra

  • Form of government: Parliamentary diarchy (principality)
  • Name of the sovereign: CopPrince Joan Enric Vives i Sicilia (Bishop of La Seu D’urgell) and CopPrince Emmanuel Macron (President of the French Republic)
  • Year the monarchy began: 1278

Andorra is a microstate located in the Pyrenees, between Spain and France. Its co -principality is of a parliamentary type , and is defined as ” diarchic ” since the regency belongs to two persons exercising the same power with equal dignity : the Andorran co-principalities are the President of France and the Bishop of the Spanish city of La Seu D’urgell .

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