The skin rash , better known as ” skin rash ” manifests itself with a red pigmentation of the skin, itching, burning, pain and the formation of pustules or small bubbles, on a more or less circumscribed area of ​​the body.
It is therefore an alteration visible to the naked eye of the normal characteristics of the skin, making it appear uneven, irritated and inflamed.
Usually the skin rasharises in a short period of time, after direct exposure or contact with substances or factors irritating the subject’s skin, such as fabrics or chemicals contained in detergents, but also following insect bites or taking drugs or particular foods.
Irritative phenomena are quite common and are linked to individual sensitivity to a given substance, but also to exposure to high temperatures which causes an increase in sweating and less perspiration of the skin, or to mechanisms of overproduction of sebum, dehydration ( often linked to the cold) and again to stress.
It is also important to say that the skin rashit is also a manifestation that arises in relation to numerous pathological conditions, often linked to phenomena of chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, conditions that compromise the functioning of the immune system ( HIV infection and AIDS) or allergic reactions.
This symptom is declined in various situations and the cases in which the skin rash can occur are so many.

What are the most common causes of skin rash

Drug-induced urticaria
And a rather common occurrence, arises following the intake of pharmacological substances such as acetylsalicylic acid, antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Skin manifestations include the onset of more or less extensive red and edematous wheals, which are associated with itching and widespread skin rash with macules and papules.

It is a chronic dermatosis that is typically localized in the face area , in particular on the forehead, nose, cheeks and chin.
This pathology typically affects subjects with genetic predispositions to the disease, mainly women between 30 and 50 years of age and subjects with very light skin tones. In the early stages of the disease, the skin rash occurs following exposure to triggers such as heat, the intake of vasodilatory drugs or the consumption of alcohol: all factors that trigger both vasodilation and vasoconstriction, causing the appearance of patches red on the face .
Over time, these continuous stimulations of the capillaries of the face tend to create permanent damage to the blood vessels and those affected by rosacea experience constant red patches. In addition, circulatory stasis phenomena are created which facilitate the onset of skin infections such as acne.

Exanthematous diseases
The skin rash is one of the most typical and characterizing manifestations of exanthematous diseases, ie those diseases of an infectious nature (mainly caused by viruses but also by bacteria) that mainly affect children.
These pathologies in addition to manifesting themselves with skin rashes , red dots and pustules, they also give fever, loss of appetite, muscle-joint pains, weakness and widespread malaise. The most common and well-known exanthematous diseases are chicken pox, scarlet fever , fifth disease , sixth disease and rubella, and generally all resolve within a few days with the support of a therapy that soothes the symptoms.

Multifactorial disease, triggered by a genetic predisposition, but to which other trigger factors (or triggers) must also contribute, such as stress, infections, trauma, hormonal alterations, direct exposure to UVA and UVB rays, drug intake, smoking and alcohol . Psoriasis can result in skin rashes, although the typical manifestations are a thickening of the skin that appears whitish, keratinized and scaly. The population most affected is the female one, in an age that varies between 20 and 50-60 years.

Contact dermatitis
The skin rash is triggered by contact both by irritating substances for the subject’s skin, such as detergents, solvents and acids, and by substances to which the subject is allergic.

Atopic dermatitis
It is a chronic-relapsing eczema in which periods in which the symptoms are rather acute alternate with periods in which the manifestations are more attenuated and nuanced.
It is a condition favored by genetic predispositions that affects women more than men, and is triggered by multiple factors such as rubbing with rough tissues or irritants, reduced sweating and exposure to infections. These factors trigger a skin rash that manifests itself as itching, redness, dry, dehydrated skin and the formation of pustules .

Insect bites
Substances inoculated through insect bites can easily give rise to allergic and irritative reactions, developing skin rashes such as redness, pustules , itching and edema.
Particular attention must be paid to this type of event as allergic reactions can endanger the life of the subject if the symptoms also affect the respiratory tract, limiting or blocking normal breathing.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Autoimmune disease that can have different clinical manifestations, both cutaneous and mucous and systemic manifestations that include alterations of the central nervous system, renal insufficiency, glomerulonephritis and stroke due to thrombosis triggered by aggregates of anti-phospholipid antibodies.
Regarding skin lesions and the development of skin rash, these are typically localized on the face, resulting in the so-called malar butterfly erythema, a condition that occurs when the skin has a bright red hue, resuming the shaped appearance of a butterfly. This phenomenon mainly focuses on the cheeks.
However, skin signs can appear on all areas exposed to light, since direct exposure to sunlight is one of the triggers, and therefore, in addition to the face , the spots also affect the hands and the décolleté area.

How to diagnose
If skin rasharises as a result of contact with a certain substance, such as a soap, any personal hygiene product or perhaps after wearing a garment in artificial fabric, there is no need to be alarmed.
Most of the time it is sufficient to remove the substance or material that caused the rash, applying a moisturizing, soothing and anti-inflammatory cream to resolve the disorder. It is also recommended to use personal hygiene products that respect the normal pH of the skin and that do not contain irritants and perfumes. However, it is always advisable to report what happened to your doctor, who will be able to provide more information and evaluate if the conditions exist to investigate the matter from a clinical point of view.
Similarly, the skin rashif linked to sweat , especially if you use clothing that does not allow regular skin perspiration or if you usually practice sports regularly, it should not cause anxiety. In most cases, adopting small changes is often decisive.
Then wear clean natural cotton clothing and wash the skin properly after a training session, taking care to use skin-friendly detergents, to use a jet of water that is neither too hot nor too cold, and to dry the skin well before getting dressed. Also in this case it is right to talk to your doctor to evaluate if there may be conditions of clinical interest to be investigated (such as excessive sweating, or hyperhidrosis).
If theskin rash accompanied by fever , muscle-joint pains, weakness, chills and general malaise, medical advice must be promptly. In fact, it could be an exanthematous disease (especially if it concerns children) or in any case an infection. In general, the therapies treat the symptoms rather than the viral agent, therefore the doctor usually advises painkillers, anti-inflammatories and possibly ointments to soothe the itch. If, on the other hand, the infection is bacterial in nature, then antibiotic therapy is used.
In case the skin rashIt is a persistent phenomenon, or one that occurs frequently, it is necessary to undergo specific diagnostic medical tests to ascertain what the triggering cause is, in order to start taking adequate therapy as soon as possible. On the recommendation of the doctor, it will be possible to perform a specialist dermatology visit, carry out a blood sample to check for the presence of autoimmune diseases or carry out allergological tests to identify the substances to which adverse reactions occur.
In any case, the assessment of skin rashes must be submitted to the attention of a specialist in dermatology, and in no case can we rely on do-it-yourself diagnoses based on photographic collections found on the internet.
We have seen that the rashit can manifest itself as a result of numerous conditions, both pathological and irritative, therefore it is necessary to reach a clear and precise diagnosis in the shortest possible time, in order to quickly start taking an effective therapy and avoid worsening (even irreversible) of the condition.
Another issue is that inherent in allergic manifestations , often linked to insect bites or the intake of drugs (often antibiotics). In these cases the skin rash represents only a marginal part of the problem, because in fact an allergic reaction can cause widespread edema, red skin on the face, swelling of the tongue, sensation of a foreign body in the throat and especially difficulty in breathing.
The latter event that can seriously endanger the life of the subject. It is therefore recommended that you contact 118 immediately or go to the nearest emergency room.
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