Pelvic pain , an area that corresponds to the lower abdomen or pelvis, is a rather common disorder in the female population, but which everyone has experienced at least once in their life.
In men it is an event that should not be underestimated because it can be the consequence of an inflammation of the prostate or urethra.
Even if the pain is intense and annoying, it is not always necessary to be frightened and think about possible causes of serious entity. In fact, pelvic pain is one of the most common symptoms during the menstrual cycle and this applies to both regular and heavy periods.
Therefore, if the pain occurs in correspondence with the menstrual cycle, there is no need to worry. If the phenomenon is particularly annoying, persistent or chronic, it is necessary to contact your doctor to investigate the situation with the help of appropriate diagnostic tests.
If the pain, on the other hand, should appear suddenly and acute, it is advisable to promptly contact your doctor and be directed to more in-depth specialist visits to understand the cause.

What are the causes of pelvic pain
In outlining the causes of pelvic or lower abdominal pain we can rely on a subdivision that takes into account the location of the possible cause that caused it.
We therefore have:

  • pelvic causes : when the pain is caused by pathological or inflammatory processes affecting the organs contained in the pelvis. This is the case of pains related to the menstrual cycle, but very often also as a consequence of inflammation of the pudendal nerve and muscle fatigue after intense sporting activity;
  • extra-pelvic causes : when the pain is felt in the pelvis area but in reality the cause is due to a pathology that affects an organ located elsewhere. Examples are pain from appendicitis, urinary tract infections, intestinal obstructions, inflammation of the gallbladder and diverticulitis.

There are then two forms of pelvic pain, acute pain and chronic pain . Let’s go and see them in more detail.

Chronic pelvic pain
This type of disorder is very common in conjunction with the ovulation phase. Generally, there is a diffuse and dull pain in the abdomen that occurs around the 14th day of the cycle and lasts for a variable duration, from a few minutes to a few hours.
This form takes the better known name of PMS , characterized not only by pelvic pain but also by a series of symptomsaccompanying it, such as cramps, fatigue, mood depression, irritability, water retention and bloating.
At this point, however, a distinction must be made with another type of disturbance of the menstrual cycle which is dysmenorrhea; in this case the pain is so intense that normal daily activities are impossible.

Acute pelvic pain
This case series occurs when the cause is to be attributed to an inflammatory pathology, usually the pain is felt both in the right and left side of the pelvis.
If, on the other hand, the pain is felt only by one of the two parties, the diagnostic suspicion is more oriented towards the presence of ovarian cysts (and their bleeding) or towards neoplasms affecting the fallopian tubes (tubules that connect the uterus to the ovaries) or ovary.
If pain is felt in only one of the two sectors of the pelvis, accompanied by bleeding, fever that occurs between 6 and 8 weeks after the last menstruation, the hypothesis of an ectopic pregnancy must also be considered. This condition arises when the fetus is nested outside the uterine structure ( extra-uterine pregnancy ).
How to diagnose the problem

How the diagnosis takes place
What is expected when we go to a doctor
What aspects will be evaluated
The doctor first of all makes an accurate medical history of the case, evaluating the type of pain, its intensity, when and how it occurs, in which areas it radiates and asking all useful questions in order to understand a possible cause .
It also goes to evaluate the presence or absence of manifestations such as bleeding, pain during sexual intercourse and defecation and again if there are problems related to urination.
Based on the information obtained, the doctor will direct us to in-depth diagnostics such as blood , urine and faeces analyzes, ultrasounds and any other specific tests for the diagnostic suspicion.

What is the therapy for pelvic pain
The most appropriate therapy for the treatment of pelvic pain must be entrusted to a specialist doctor after having carried out all the necessary investigations. It is therefore recommended not to improvise strategies and not to rely on solutions found on the internet which, due to objective limits, cannot take into account the particularities of each individual case.
Obviously the right therapy is suitable for each individual case, but let’s see which are the most used treatments.
In case of dysmenorrhea, therefore when you have pain so strong as to affect normal daily activities, usuallymost effective drugs have been shown to be NSAIDs or oral contraceptives.
For extra-uterine pregnancies (which must be followed under close medical supervision), the use of methotrexate has long proved to be an effective treatment, but sometimes the treatment must be surgical in nature.
If the cause of pelvic pain is due to bacterial infections, treatment involves taking antibiotics. Also in this case it is recommended to follow only the instructions provided by the attending physician.
We have seen that the most frequent cause of pelvic painand due to the menstrual cycle, so let’s see some tips to mitigate the unpleasant sensation of cramps and discomfort related to this physiological event in the life of every woman.

  • It is important to follow a diet rich in water, fruit and vegetables, reducing the intake of fatty and salt-rich foods. This precaution is not only important in order to maintain a good general state of health of the person, but it is very useful in decreasing water retention and therefore the sensation of swelling which is easy to find in conjunction with the menstrual cycle;
  • One of the most effective strategies for treating pain is to use heat, whether it is transmitted by means of compresses, hot water bottles , baths or showers. It is a strategy as simple as it is effective, in fact, the heat helps to relax the muscles by reducing the sense of contraction and pain;
  • It is very important to exercise constantly, in addition to keeping the body fit and in good health, it helps to improve blood circulation by making sure that the inflammatory factors (prostaglandins), which are localized during the menstrual cycle, are counteracted by the release of factors that counteract its effect;
  • When the pain is particularly annoying and causes suffering, then one can turn to the action of drugs such as paracetamol, ibuprofen or ketoprofen. Although some of these drugs can be purchased without a prescription as they are over-the-counter drugs, it is recommended that you do not take them consistently and always refer to your doctor.

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