We publish the premise of the new book by Lodovico Festa and Giulio Sapelli, published by Guerini and goWare, “Draghi o il chaos. The great disintegration: Italy has a way out

We have collected in this book Draghi or the chaos – The great disintegration: Italy has a way out
many analyzes carried out by both on the political and economic-social state of ‘Italy.
Italy is certainly fully inserted in the increasingly unified trends of the ongoing globalization processes, which with a homogeneous trait have also expressed themselves in the fight against the pandemic that broke out in 2020. But on the other hand, we Italians are dealing with a political crisis and of the institutions which is largely original.
Democracy is put to the test all over the world, authoritarian regimes are also affirming themselves in States that had begun a path of affirmation of freedoms and human rights. But the type of vertical crisis of the state that began in Italy in 1992, with the destruction or disruption of the fundamental parties in the history of the Republic and with a shift in power from the elective assemblies to the judiciary, is an original phenomenon.
Just as it is, after 2011, the substantial commissioning of our government by the Quirinale, in agreement with the Franco-German axis that hegemonizes the European Union.
There are many reasons that explain our drift: the inability and difficulty of transforming our Republic, which had and has some of its foundations in the context determined by the Cold War. The need to tackle the financial crisis of 2008 and the sovereign debt crisis of 2011 prompted the top of the Republic to seek a special “emergency” relationship with the European Commission which, for a large part, led to that sort of commissioner of which we said a moment ago.
If the roots of the phenomena we describe are understandable, one cannot fail to observe how the partial and progressive emptying of politics has caused a profound disintegration of our society. At the time of writing, however, it seems to us that we are seizing an opportunity to start reversing the trend to which we have been subject. The appearance in the institutional framework of a personality like Mario Draghi, esteemed for his competence and for his international relations, perhaps offers a chance to start a work of reorganization.
The destinies of Italy may be different: if by a miracle the European Union became a true federal institution, many of our contradictions would be resolved at that level. The hypothesis of a sort of definitive disintegration of our nation is however not to be canceled: so it happened in the “near” 1400 when we were at the forefront of the West.
However, even the path of recovery is not yet completely closed. But the condition for it to assert itself, since authoritarian solutions are not foreseeable in the medium term, lies in a resumption of politics as an essential form of the relations of society with institutions.
Mario Draghi’s presidency can help the affirmation of such a process only if it exercises from the Quirinale the function of guarantor and arbitrator that it leaves to the parties (and to the citizens who must be allowed to give, through the vote, a national political direction and not only to express a choice of party preference) the central role that belongs to them in a democratic state. Guarantor in the international political-financial context; arbiter in setting some rules for political choices which, here and today, cannot fail to take into account the guidelines of the European Union. It would be a shame to miss this opportunity and think that “competence” alone can remedy the Italian failures, not evaluating the systemic issues we have to face.
This conviction prompted us to write a short essay divided between the analysis of what happens and has happened, and the political proposal that we derive from it.

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